The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in 1928 in Egypt by a schoolteacher, Hassan al-Banna. He had been born in Mahmudiyya near Cairo on October 14, 1906, the eldest son of a watch-repairer, Ahmad ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Banna. Though the family was never wealthy, it upheld a long tradition of Islamic scholarship. Al-Banna senior was an imam who had graduated from Cairo's Al-Azhar University, the largest Sunni seminary in the world. Ahmad spent 40 years of his life compiling and cataloguing an estimated 45,000 reports of the sayings and deeds of the prophet Mohammed. The most respected collector of such hadith , Bukhari (810 to 870 AD), included only 2,062 of these quotations in his collection which he considered to be "sahih" or authentic.
Hassan al-Banna was taught to memorize the Koran at a young age, and trained to be a teacher. He started teaching in 1927. It was in March, 1928, that Hassan al-Banna, his younger brother Gamal and five others gathered at his home and made a pledge to live and die for Islam. Thus was founded the Muslim Brotherhood ( al-Ikhwanu I-Muslimin or Hizb al-Ikhwan Al-Muslimoon ). In its initial years, the Ikhwan functioned as a youth organization engaged in daw'ah or missionary work. Its political philosophy grew as its membership increased. Al-Banna considered himself to be Sufi, which is essentially apolitical, and belonged to the Hasafiya Sufi order.
Despite this, there were global political issues that concerned him. On March 23, 1924, the last Caliphate, that of the Ottomans, was dissolved by Kemal Ataturk, the Turkish secularist. This system had been an institutional hub of the Muslim world since 1290 AD. In 1919, al-Banna had participated in demonstrations against British rule in Egypt. It has been suggested that al-Banna was a Wahhabist, perhaps confusing a movement from Saudi Arabia called the Ikhwan (Brotherhood), which had been employed by Abdul Aziz al-Saud to establish his rule over Arabia.
Hassan al-Banna is portrayed by Muslim biographers as a benevolent figure. He would be invitedto the British Embassy, and his work in assisting widows and orphans was praised. But Banna's writings belie a more focused and uncompromising agenda. He stated: "It is the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated; to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet."
A work by al-Banna entitled The Way of Jihad presents some stark words to contradict those who would claim his ideology was benign. Many Muslims speak of Jihad as being an "inner struggle". But Banna made no bones about the meaning of the term. He wrote in the Epilogue of this book: " Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser jihad) and that fighting one's ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration [athar] is quoted as proof: "We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater jihad." They said: "What is the greater jihad?" He said: "The jihad of the heart, or the jihad against one's ego." This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah's way. This narration is not a saheeh (sound) tradition..."
"...But nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra (the supreme martyrdom) or the reward that is waiting for the Mujahideen. "
In the same book, Banna writes: " It is fard (obligatory) on us to fight with the enemies. The Imam must send a military expedition to the Dar-al-Harb every year at least once or twice, and the people must support him in this. If some of the people fulfil the obligation, the remainder are released from the obligation. "
Islam has always divided the world into two camps - Dar-ul-Islam and Dar-ul-Harb. Dar-ul-Islam is the "abode of Islam", and Dar-ul-Harb refers to the world that is not under Islamic rule. Dar-ul-Harb literally means "the abode of war". And al-Banna certainly approved of this war against the infidels who in the 1930s were seen as conquerors of Muslim lands.
Al-Banna believed that the West, with its separation of church and state, was weakening Islam with its influence. By 1934, there were 50 branches of the Ikhwan (Muslim Brotherhood) in Egypt, and these branches established schools, mosques and factories. In 1935 a Syrian branch was founded at Aleppo. By the end of World War II, the Muslim Brotherhood had half a million members in Egypt alone, belonging to 2000 branches. By this time, there were said to be 50 branches in Sudan. A senior figure in the emergent Sudanese Muslim Brotherhood was Hassan al-Turabi who would later give shelter to terrorists Osama bin Laden and Carlos the Jackal in 1991. In 1990 he also waged war on non-Muslims in southern Sudan, forcing them to abide by sharia rule.
Hassan al-Banna wrote many books and treatises on Islam during his lifetime, but he would not survive to see the massive international growth of the movement. He had made enemies within the Egyptian establishment. In 1936 he had written to King Farouk and the prime minister urging them to impose an Islamic system. Two years later, he again made this demand with more force. He wrote that all political parties should be dissolved on account of their corruption. In 1939, the Brotherhood established itself officially as a political group. The movement under al-Banna was rapidly becoming more militant and opposed to the Egyptian government.
In 1940, the Brotherhood established militant training camps in the Mukatam Hills near Cairo, as well as in the south of Egypt. Its members established kangaroo courts where fatwas were issued against those deemed to be enemies, and Ikhwan members would carry out these assassinations. In 1942, Hassan al-Banna established branches in Transjordan and Palestine. He ensured that several thousand Muslim Brotherhood members were sent from Egypt to fight against the formation of Israel in 1948. According to a 2002 report in the Military Review , in 1948 the Brotherhood carried out the bombing of the Circurrel shopping center. One of their targets for assassination was the prime minister, Noqrashi Pasha. In December of 1948, Pasha had urged the banning of the movement, after bombs were found in Ikhwan members' possession. The Brotherhood claimed that the weaponry was for use against Israel. An Ikhwan member murdered Pasha on December 28, 1948, although Hassan al-Banna condemned this act, and the Brotherhood was banned.
On February 12, 1949, Hassan al-Banna was shot dead in a Cairo market, almost certainly on the orders of the government. No one was ever charged with the killing. The official successor to al-Banna was Hasan al-Hudaybi, a respected judge. But the intellectual power of the Brotherhood would be carried by a slightly-built man, whose writings still greatly influence today's jihadists.
From the 1940s, the Brotherhood had been in close association with Gamel al-Nasser, who had a secret wing within the Egyptian army called the Free Officer Movement. The Ikhwan and the Free Officers had a shared contempt for the British and their involvement in not only Egypt but the rest of the Middle East. In 1948, Nasser met with Hassan al-Banna for the first time. An agreement was established, in which the Brotherhood pledged to assist Nasser in his plans to overthrow the government, after which the Ikhwan would expect a share of power. In 1949 nine members of the Free Officer Movement formed a coup committee. Nasser became head of this group in 1950 and in July 1952 Nasser and his associates seized power.
Though Nasser had been considered an ally, he offered the Brotherhood only a minor role within his new government, inside the Waqf or "religious affairs" department. The Brotherhood's resentment would soon lead to enmity with Nasser. One man would emerge as the spiritual successor to Hassan al-Banna, a shy former supervisor within Egypt's Education Ministry called Sayyid Qutb. This man, born in the same year as al-Banna in the village of Mush in Ayut province, southern Egypt, had initially supported the United States. Between November 1948 and 1951 he had been sent by the Education Ministry to the USA, to study American education programs.
The outward boat journey was a traumatic experience for the 42-year old virgin bachelor. One night a young American woman, scantily clad and worse the wear for drink, knocked on his stateroom door. She asked to be his guest, and Qutb indicated that there was only one bed in his stateroom. When she said that a single bed could hold two people, Qutb slammed the door in her face. He heard her land on the deck with a thump, and thanked Allah for sparing him from succumbing to temptation.
This incident was the first of many that would convince Qutb that the American woman was a "vixen" and seducer, and her only suitable partner would be a brutal primitive male, driven on by greed. He would later write in a book entitled "The America I Have Seen": This primitiveness can be seen in the spectacle of the fans as they follow a game of football... or watch boxing matches or bloody, monstrous wrestling matches... This spectacle leaves no room for doubt as to the primitiveness of the feelings of those who are enamored with muscular strength and desire it.
Like the French revolutionary Robespierre, who had no warm and physical relationships yet clinically sublimated his passions into his political "grand plan", Qutb became a man whose ideology became sharply intellectualized, yet devoid of humanity. Where Robespierre dreamed of implementing a new order by totally destroying the old, Qutb saw Islamic revolution as a redemption from perceived sins and depravities which so alienated him.
In 1949, Qutb was based at Colorado State Teachers College in Greeley, 100 miles north of Denver. Even in this quiet conservative town, Qutb saw depravity everywhere. He even saw the habit of mowing lawns as a sign of American greed. Attending a dance held at a basement of a church, where men danced with women, Qutb was appalled. He wrote: "They danced to the tunes of the gramophone, and the dance floor was replete with tapping feet, enticing legs, arms wrapped around waists, lips pressed to lips, and chests pressed to chests. The atmosphere was full of desire..."
Upon his return from the US in 1951, Qutb joined the Muslim Brotherhood. At the time of the 1952 coup, Qutb was head of the Brotherhood's propaganda department. The resentments against Nasser led to one member, Abdul Munim Abdul Rauf, trying to assassinate Nasser on October 26, 1954. The Ikhwan was once again banned. As a result of Nasser's suppression of the movement, many Muslim Brotherhood members fled to neighboring countries, including Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. Nasser attempted to overthrow the kingdom of Jordan, and the local Brotherhood supported King Hussain. When the Jordanian king abolished political parties in 1957, the Brotherhood was allowed to remain in Jordan.
The 1954 assassination attempt against Nasser would lead to most of the Brotherhood leadership being taken to jail in Egypt. Here the leaders, including Qutb, would be subjected to torture. His experience of such rough justice did not prevent him from writing. During his sojourn in prison, he completed his largest writing project, Fi Zalal al-Koran (In the Shadow of the Koran), a 30-volume commentary on the Koran which he had begun to publish in installments since 1952.
His experiences of being incarcerated for 10 years of his life inspired his most famous book - Milestones on the Road (Ma'alim fi'l-Tariq) . In this, his final book, he laid out a ground plan for political jihad, leading ultimately to Islam's global domination. This book is still read by Salafists and jihadists and has inspired the current global jihad. The book was published shortly after he had been released from jail in 1964. The revolutionary nature of the work led to Nasser ordering Qutb to be rearrested. He was sentenced to death in August 1965.
Qutb wrote in Milestones: "Mankind today is on the brink of a precipice, not because of the danger of complete annihilation which is hanging over its head - this being just a symptom and not the real disease - but because humanity is devoid of those vital values which are necessary not only for its healthy development but also for its real progress. Even the Western world realizes that Western civilization is unable to present any healthy values for the guidance of mankind. It knows that it does not possess anything which will satisfy its own conscience and justify its existence.... It is essential for mankind to have a new leadership... Islam is the only system which possesses these values and this way of life."
In Milestones , Qutb advocated the establishment of a force of believers to lead a war against Jahiliyya , the state of ignorance that existed before Mohammed's message. The book can be read online. In its fourth chapter which discusses jihad, Qutb writes: "The establishing of the dominion of God on earth, the abolishing of the dominion of man, the taking away of sovereignty from the usurper to revert it to God, and the bringing about of the enforcement of the Divine Law and the abolition of man-made laws cannot be achieved only through preaching. Those who have usurped the authority of God and are oppressing God's creatures are not going to give up their power merely through preaching; if it had been so, the task of establishing God's religion in the world would have been very easy for the Prophets of God! This is contrary to the evidence from the history of the Prophets and the story of the struggle of the true religion, spread over generations."
"....God held back Muslims from fighting in Mecca and in the early period of their migration to Medina, and told them, "Restrain your hands, and establish regular prayers, and pay Zakat". Next, they were permitted to fight: "Permission to fight is given to those against whom war is made, because they are oppressed, and God is able to help them. These are the people who were expelled from their homes without cause. The next stage came when the Muslims were commanded to fight those who fight them: "Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you." And finally, war was declared against all the polytheists: "And fight against all the polytheists, as they all fight against you;" "Fight against those among the People of the Book who do not believe in God and the Last Day, who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, and who do not consider the true religion as their religion, until they are subdued and pay Jizyah." Thus, according to the explanation by Imam Ibn Qayyim, the Muslims were first restrained from fighting; then they were permitted to fight; then they were commanded to fight against the aggressors; and finally they were commanded to fight against all the polytheists."
In 1966, Nasser granted an amnesty to the Brotherhood, and most of its imprisoned members were freed. Within months there were three assassination attempts against the dictator, and the leaders of the Brotherhood were rounded up once more. All, including Sayyid Qutb, were hanged. Qutb died on the gallows of Tura Prison on August 29, 1966.
The Brotherhood, Nazism And Islamofascism
The founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hassan al-Banna, declared his support for the virulent anti-Semite Haj Amin Al-Husseini, who was then the "Mufti of Jerusalem". The British High Commissioner of Palestine, Herbert Samuel, had bestowed this title upon Husseini on May 8, 1921, even though he had organized anti-Jewish riots on April 4, 1920, in which five Jews had been killed. Husseini was expected to maintain order in the region, but continued to enact pogroms against Jews in the region in 1921, 1929 and 1936. Samuel sacked Husseini in 1936 after he led a general strike and instigated a revolt against British rule. After the British tried to arrest him in July 1937, the "Mufti" went into hiding and in October disguised himself as a woman and fled to Lebanon.
Husseini (1895 - 1974) had developed links with the German Nazi party during the 1930s, and in 1941 he traveled to Germany. He had a formal meeting with Hitler on November 28, 1941. He collaborated with Eichmann and Himmler on their plans to exterminate Jews. On July 15, 1946 at the Nuremburg trials, Eichmann's deputy Dieter Wisliceny testified that Husseini had said that "accompanied by Eichmann, he had visited incognito the gas chamber of Auschwitz". Wisliceny also said that Husseini intervened when Eichmann had been persuaded to spare thousands of Polish Jewish children in a prisoner exchange. The deal was abandoned and the children were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp to be processed and dispatched to death camps.
Husseini encouraged Bosnian Muslims to join the Handschar, the 13th division of Himmler's Waffen SS. Twenty thousand Muslims joined up, and at Potsdam, the Mufti supervised their induction. In 1944, Husseini was given a special villa in Oybin, Saxony, pictured in this fascinating, must-see German video which documentsHusseini's stay with the Nazis.
After the war, Husseini went to Egypt where the Muslim Brotherhood ensured that he was granted asylum. Though he was not allowed to enter Jerusalem, when a branch of the Muslim Brotherhood opened there in the mid-1940s, Husseini was declared a local leader of the group.
The anti-Semitism of the Muslim Brotherhood was displayed in its literature. Dr Matthias Kuntzel observed that "up to 1951 the jihad movement of the Brotherhood was almost exclusively focused on Zionism and Jews.... Their newspaper al-Nadhir published a regular column called 'The danger of the Jews of Egypt'. They published the names and addresses of Jewish businessmen and the publishers of allegedly Jewish newspapers all over the world, attributing every evil - from communism to prostitution - to the 'Jewish menace'."
The 1947 decision by the UN to partition Palestine was denounced by the Brotherhood as an "international plot carried out by the Americans, the Russians and the British, under the influence of Zionism." The Muslim Brotherhood sent 10,000 fighters to Israel in 1948, and at this time had established links with members of the "Free Officers" group - Anwar Sadat and also the future dictator Gamal Abdel Nasser, who would lead the 1952 revolution.
Sayyid Qutb, like Hassan al-Banna, was an ardent anti-Semite. In 1950 he had written an essay entitled "Our struggle with the Jews". In this, he maintained that Jews were identical to their ancestors who "confronted Islam with Enmity from the moment that the Islamic state was established in Medina. They plotted against the Muslim Community from the first day it became a Community."
In the same document, Qutb claimed that Jews employed "machinations and double dealings which discomfited the Early Muslims... The Jews continue - through their wickedness and double-dealing - to lead this (Muslim) community away from its religion and to alienate it from its Koran." He asserted that "From such creatures who kill, massacre and defame prophets one can only expect the spilling of human blood and dirty means which would further their machinations and evilness."
Qutb declared in this work that "Allah brought Hitler to rule over them" and wished the worst upon the Jews - "Allah bring down upon the Jews people who will mete out to them the worst kind of punishment, as confirmation of his unequivocal promise."
Qutb's undiluted hatred of the West, hatred for the Jews and hatred of anything that did not conform to the society established under the leadership of Mohammed the prophet led to his works having an influence beyond the Muslim Brotherhood. His ideas were closely followed by two Islamist groups that emerged in Egypt after Nasser had died in 1970. These were Islamic Jihad and Gamaa Islamiya (also called Jamaa Islamiya or al-Gama'at al-Islamiyya). The latter group had been founded as a response to an official decision by the Muslim Brotherhood to renounce violence.
Nasser's successor was Anwar Sadat, who promised the Muslim Brotherhood that he would impose Sharia law upon Egypt. In 1970 he released all Muslim Brotherhood members who were in prison. Later, Sadat reneged on his promise of Sharia and alienated the Brotherhood and other Salafists (conservative traditionalists) such as Gamaah Islamiya and Islamic Jihad. In the Egyptian general election of 1976, no Muslim Brotherhood members were allowed to stand as candidates. Some Brotherhood members stood as "independents" and some as members of the Arab Socialist Party. Thus they managed to gain 15 seats in the People's Assembly.
One Egyptian admirer of Qutb was a young eye surgeon called Ayman al-Zawahiri, who came from an affluent family in Cairo's Maadi district. He had first been arrested in 1966, for being a member of the outlawed Muslim Brotherhood. He was 15 at this time. A decade later he was the leader of Islamic Jihad. This group, acting with Gamaa Islamiya, carried out the bomb attack which killed Anwar Sadat on October 6, 1981.
Sadat had alienated Islamists by signing a peace accord with Menachem Begin, Israel's prime minister, on March 26, 1979. After Sadat's killing, Zawahiri was arrested. Though no evidence pointed to his direct role in the assassination, he was imprisoned for three years for possessing a rifle. Ayman al-Zawahiri is now famous as the second-in-command of Al Qaeda. Many of his current speeches imitate the style and content of Qutb's writings. In August 2006, Ayman al-Zawahiri announced that Gamaa Islamiya had officially become an affiliate of al-Qaeda.
It has been alleged that the CIA gave assistance to the Brotherhood and other Islamic groups who were seen to be in opposition to these pro-Soviet regimes. In 1951, before Egypt's coup, the CIA is said to have opened negotiations with Nasser. After the Suez crisis which began five years later, and Nasser's Soviet flirtations, the CIA's support supposedly went to his opponents. Former US Justice Department prosecutor John Loftus suggested in 2004 that copious CIA files on the Muslim Brotherhood had been destroyed. What is verifiable is that the only solid thing to unite Arabs of all political persuasions and degrees of religiosity was a hostility to Israel. The contempt for Israel was exploited by the Muslim Brotherhood with its consistent traditions of open anti-Semitism.
Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, born in 1938 in al-Jora, south of the Gaza Strip, was an active member of the Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood. In 1969 - 1970, he had revived the Brotherhood's activities in Gaza. A sporting accident in his youth had paralyzed his legs and hands, but he preached for the destruction of Israel in mosques around Gaza, gaining popularity and prestige. In 1987, he was head of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. It was in this year, around the time of the first intifada that he set up the group Hamas, assisted by Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, who had become a Muslim Brotherhood member in Gaza in 1976.
Hamas now has offices in Damascus in Syria and also in Lebanon. Soon after it began its operations, Hamas became progressively more violent, launching suicide attacks against Israeli military and civilian targets. Israel finally responded with targeted missile strikes. Yassin was killed on March 22, 2004, and a month later on April 17, al-Rantissi was killed. By this time, Hamas had mounted more than 425 terrorist attacks against Israel. Ismail Haniya, who is now the leader of Hamas, said outside the hospital where Rantissi died: "Israel will regret this. Revenge is coming."
In Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood had reacted to the death of Sheikh Yassin as the loss of one of their own. There were riots and protests across Egypt. The Brotherhood issued a statement which read: "Sheikh Yassin is not the first or last martyr as long as there is occupation." The letter said that resistance and jihad were the only way to free Palestine, and blamed the US for giving "political and military support for the Zionists" and "using American taxpayers' money to shed innocent blood everywhere."
The Hamas Charter, the document which lays out the ethos of the group, declares its implacable opposition to any Jews remaining in Israel. Written in 1988, it includes the statement: "The Islamic Resistance Movement is one of the wings of the Muslim Brothers in Palestine. The Muslim Brotherhood Movement is a world organization, the largest Islamic Movement in the modern era. It is characterized by a profound understanding, by precise notions and by a complete comprehensiveness of all concepts of Islam in all domains of life: views and beliefs, politics and economics, education and society, jurisprudence and rule, indoctrination and teaching, the arts and publications, the hidden and the evident, and all the other domains of life."
Article 15 of the charter asserts that "When our enemies usurp some Islamic lands, Jihad becomes a duty binding on all Muslims. In order to face the usurpation of Palestine by the Jews, we have no escape from raising the banner of Jihad. This would require the propagation of Islamic consciousness among the masses on all local, Arab and Islamic levels. We must spread the spirit of Jihad among the [Islamic] Umma, clash with the enemies and join the ranks of the Jihad fighters."
The Hamas Charter, in effect, is the doctrine of the Muslim Brotherhood, writ large. Hamas craftily ran "charities" in the Palestinian territories, at the same time as organizing terrorist attacks. Many of these "charities" are either fronts for the terror operations of Hamas, or they are places such as schools and orphanages where hatred of Israel and the desire for martyrdom, as eulogized in the writings of Hassan al Banna and Sayyid Qutb, are indoctrinated into young minds.
In 2002, Israel carried out Operation Defensive Shield, and seized documents which proved that some of the charities, such as the Bethlehem Orphan Care Society were donating reward money to families of suicide bombers. On August 22, 2003, the US Treasury designated six Hamas leaders and five charities which funded Hamas as terrorist entities. Britain, somewhat typically, has refused to ban one of these Hamas-supporting charities - Interpal, which is based in Kilburn, west London.
The current leader of the Muslim Brotherhood is 79-year old Mohammed Mahdi Akif (Akef). He was elected as "guide general" of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood on December 31, 2003. He was the sixth "guide general" of the Brotherhood, succeeding Mamun al-Hodaiby who had died in the previous week.
The Muslim Brotherhood claims to reject violence, but this is a lie propagated to allow it to function with little interference in 70 nations around the world, rather than a genuine statement of philosophy.
Akif joined the Brotherhood in 1948, and was one of the founders of the "special operations" unit, the al-Nizam al-Khas , set up by the Brotherhood to commit acts of terror and assassinations. In 1954, Akif had been given a death sentence for attempting to kill President Nasser, but this had been commuted to hard labor. Last year, Akif offered to send 10,000 Muslim Brotherhood members to assist Hezbollah in the conflict which it had deliberately created between Israel and Lebanon, somewhat contradicting Brotherhood claims to be "peaceful".
The current "spiritual leader" of the Muslim Brotherhood is Sheikh Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who is based in Qatar. This individual has issued a fatwa sanctioning terrorist attacks against Israeli civilians.
The Muslim Brotherhood is a highly influential movement, but it is a chameleon, employing deception to gain a foothold on power. It professes non-violence and implementation of political solutions, but it influences and supports terrorist organizations. In Egypt in the elections of 2005, the Muslim Brotherhood was officially banned from entering any candidates. Despite this, it repeated tactics it had used in the 1976, 1984 and 1987 elections, and stood candidates who claimed to be "independent" or affiliated with legitimate parties. As a result, the Brotherhood gained 88 seats out of a total of 454, becoming the largest opposition group in the Egyptian Parliament.
Last year, on July 30, Mohammed Mahdi Akef (Akif), the current "guide general" of the Muslim Brotherhood, spoke on Al Jazeera television. He warned the Egyptian government: "These ignorants who rule Egypt with force and with security agencies - I call upon them to fear Allah, to return to Allah, and to reach out to this people, which attributes power and honor to you. Otherwise, the people will soon trample you underfoot, Allah willing."
Akif also had harsh words for the West: "This American Satan claims to be a messenger of divine guidance. Divine guidance never commands anything but truth, justice, and freedom, things that have nothing to do with him. I salute all the honorable Americans who stand up to this Satan, who wants to set the entire world on fire, not just the Arab and Islamic nation. I go back to the issue of Jihad. Jihad is an individual duty incumbent upon every Muslim, male and female, if any inch of the land of Islam and the Muslims is occupied."
What constitutes a "land of Islam" is a disputed point. Members of the Muslim Brotherhood have rarely condemned situations where Islam is imposed forcibly upon people. The Muslim Brotherhood established itself in Sudan in 1949. In 1964, Hassan al-Turabi became the leader of the Sudanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. This individual, born in 1932, was highly educated, with a PhD in Law from the Sorbonne and a PhD in Law from the University of London.
It was in October of 1964, after being involved in the uprising against President Ibrahim Abboud that Hassan al-Turabi gained his position. He headed the Islamic Charter Front, a political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood, which wished to impose sharia law upon the country. Following the May, 1969 coup by the Soviet-supported dictator Jafaa Numeiri, members of the Islamic Charter Front/Muslim Brotherhood were jailed. Turabi spent six years in jail and then fled to Libya for three years. From 1969 to 1985, the group called itself the Muslim Brotherhood, acknowledging its roots in the Egyptian movement.
In 1979 Turabi was reconciled with Numeiri and became Sudan's attorney general. In 1985, Turabi was fired, and tried for sedition with other Muslim Brotherhood members. When Numeiri left Sudan on a trip to the US, on April 6, 1985 his chief of staff, Lieutenant General Suwar al-Dhahab, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, mounted a coup. Turabi reorganized the Sudanese Brotherhood, calling it the National Islamic Front (NIF), and became attorney general and justice minister in 1988. In 1989 he was additionally appointed deputy prime minister, but was made to resign his positions when his NIF party refused to sign a peace deal with non-Muslim rebels in the south.
In 1989 a group of officers influenced by the NIF staged a coup, placing Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir into power, where he remains today. Bashir jailed Turabi briefly, but he was released and helped Bashir meld Sudan's laws to comply with Islam. Between 1989 and 1991, Sharia law was made compulsory for all, including 10 million non-Muslims in the south. This action led to the civil war with the south to escalate over two decades until June 6, 2005, when a new constitution was agreed. Pluralism and the rights of individuals to have religious differences were acknowledged for the first time since 1989.
Turabi fell out with Bashir in 1999, but his influence in imposing Islam upon non-Muslims cost the lives of 2 million people. In 1990 Carlos the Jackal (now a Muslim convert) was given shelter in Sudan for four years. In 1991, Turabi gave shelter to Osama bin Laden for five years. He maintains that bin Laden was only a "businessman" and not a terrorist. The Arab-led government of Bashir is still engaged in the slaughter of non-Arab Muslims in Darfur in the West. As Patrick Poole recently wrote: "Thus the Muslim Brotherhood in Sudan is responsible for the greatest acts of genocide seen since the Holocaust."
The way the Muslim Brotherhood in Sudan denied rights to non-Muslims when allowed to wield power, and employed undemocratic means to gain that power, should be a warning to those who maintain that the Muslim Brotherhood is "moderate".
Graduates of Terror
The Muslim Brotherhood, which from 1948 until the 1970s engaged in assassinations and terrorism in Egypt, has indoctrinated many who went on to commit acts of terror. Ayman al-Zawahiri, who joined the Brotherhood as a teenager, was mentioned in part two. In March 1995 Zawahiri and two leaders of Gamaa Islamiya met Hassan al-Turabi in Khartoum, Sudan, to discuss a plot to kill Egypt's President Hosni Mubarak. At this time, Zawahiri was based in Geneva, where his terror group Islamic Jihad operated from a Muslim Brotherhood mosque. In 1995, according to Yossef Bodansky, the Muslim Brotherhood allied itself with groups inside Saudi Arabia who wished to overthrow the Saudi monarchical system, even though its primary aim was to topple the Egyptian government.
One could also mention Abdullah Azzam (1941 - 1989), author of the jihad manual In Defense of Muslim Lands, which in its printed editions carries an endorsement from Osama bin Laden. Azzam had been a member of the Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood, a mujahideen in Afghanistan, and was reputed to have assisted in the creation of Hamas.
Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, bin Laden's brother-in-law, was a long term member of the Brotherhood, and set up financial fronts which were used to fund terrorist groups. Khalifa's associate, Syrian-born Ahmad al-Hamwi, was granted asylum in Australia in 1996 precisely because he was tied to the Muslim Brotherhood. It was thought that in Syria he would be tortured for being a Brotherhood member, so he was granted asylum. Al-Hamwi, also known as Omar Abu Omar, is suspected of involvement in the Operation Bojinka plot.
Operation Bojinka (from the Croat word for an explosion) was a plot devised by Ramzi Yousef which would have seen 11 US-bound planes from Asia being blown up by liquid explosives smuggled on board. The plot was discovered in 1995 when smoldering chemicals alerted Filipino authorities to an apartment in Manila. Computer disks and a notebook bearing Yousef's fingerprints revealed the plot information.
Yousef had carried out the first World Trade Center attack on February 29, 1993. A truck laden with explosives was driven into the car park beneath the WTC. When it blew up six people died, including a woman who was seven months pregnant, and 1,000 others suffered injuries. Yousef was convicted of the bombing on November 12, 1997 and received a 240 year prison sentence. Yousef had been a member of the Muslim Brotherhood at least since his time as an engineering student in Wales (he graduated in 1989).
Omar Abdel Rahman, spiritual leader of Gamaa Islamiya, was also connected to the conspiracy to bomb the World Trade Center. He was brought to the United States in 1990 under the sponsorship of Muslim Brotherhood members Mahmud Abouhalima, and Mustafa Shalabi. Abouhalima was given a 240 year sentence for his part in the WTC bombing.
Shalabi had founded the Al Kifah Refugee Center in Brooklyn, which shared the same building as the Al Farooq Mosque. This center was said to have raised funds and recruits for jihad in Afghanistan, and had assets worth $2 million. Omar Abdel Rahman wanted to take over the center to raise funds for jihad in Egypt. When Shalabi objected, he was murdered.
Rahman denied conspiring to attack the WTC. He had been arrested in July, 1993, and was convicted in October 1995 of seditious conspiracy. He had planned attacks upon various New York landmarks, including the United Nations, the Lincoln and Holland tunnels and the George Washington Bridge. He was jailed for life.
Swiss Banking And Terrorism Financing
Hassan al-Banna's eldest daughter was Wafa al-Banna. She married Said Ramadan, a prominent figure in the Muslim Brotherhood. When Ramadan was expelled by Nasser, he fled first to Saudi Arabia, where he would help to found the World Muslim League in 1962. This organization promotes Wahhabism and is funded by the Saudi establishment. Said Ramadan had stayed in Pakistan in the 1950s, and he had established the Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland e.V., (IGD) in Munich, Germany. This institution concerns itself with building mosques. Ramadan and his wife settled in Switzerland in 1961 where, with some Pakistani scholars, he founded the Geneva Islamic Center in the same year.
Jean-Charles Brissard, an expert in terrorism financing, states that Said Ramadan continued to head the IGD in Munich until 1968. From 1973 to 2002 the IGD was controlled by Ali Ghaleb Himmat, another Muslim Brotherhood member.
French journalist Richard Labeviere, author of Dollars for Terror maintains that Ramadan moved to Switzerland to coordinate Muslim Brotherhood activities with those of the Nazi sympathizer and banker Francois Genoud (1915 - 1996). This man had started the Arab commercial bank in Geneva in 1958 and was a supporter Islamic militancy.
Labeviere has also suggested that Geneva was where the Muslim Brotherhood chose to launch its plans for global expansion. Switzerland's Secret Service has long maintained that the Geneva Islamic Center has been used to train terrorists from Algeria and Afghanistan.
The Islamic Center in Rue des Eaux Vives, Geneva contains a large mosque, a cultural center, a school and a lecture hall. In 1977, it was revealed that this mosque was funded by the Muslim World League. Following its official inauguration by Saudi King Kahled Bin Abdulaziz, it now annually receives $5,066,130 from the Saudi establishment. It is now headed by Said Ramadan's son Hani, who in 2002 was fired as a public school teacher for defending the Sharia practice of stoning adulterous women to death.
The Geneva center has been linked with the establishment of a Muslim Brotherhood bank, called the Al Taqwa bank, in 1988. This funded terrorist enterprises. According to a 2003 US Treasury report (p. 71): "Terrorist use of online banking services is facilitated in part by banks that have terrorist ties. For instance, Al-Taqwa Bank, founded by the Muslim Brotherhood in the Bahamas in 1988, maintained branches in Algeria, Liechtenstein, Italy, Malta, Panama, and Switzerland, and provided banking services to al-Qaeda and HAMAS until it was shut down by sanctions in the wake of September 11, 2001."
The establishment of this Muslim Brotherhood bank also reflects the Brotherhood's support for Nazism. One man who became converted to Islam at the Geneva Islamic Center shortly after it was founded was Albert Friedrich Armand Huber, aka Ahmed Huber. He went to Egypt. After World War II, many Nazis were assisted to live in Egypt, including Nazi propagandist Johannes von Leers (1902 - 1965), who would work as a propagandist for Nasser. In Egypt, Ahmed Huber met and befriended Leers, absorbing his anti-Semitic rhetoric, and he also met the anti-Semitic former Mufti, Ayman al-Husseini.
In the 1970s Ahmed Huber left the Brotherhood and entered Swiss leftist politics. He returned to the fold of the Brotherhood and established the Al Taqwa ( Fear of God ) Bank in 1988 with two other Muslim Brotherhood members - Youssef Moustafa Nada and Ali Ghaleb Himmat. Another individual who was implicitly involved in the affairs of the Al Taqwa bank was Ahmed Idris Nasreddin.
The US Treasury noted in August 29, 2002, when it froze the assets of Youssef Moustafa Nada and Ali Ghaleb Himmat and 23 other terror financiers: "Bank Al Taqwa, for which Nasreddin is a director, was established in 1988 with significant backing from the Muslim Brotherhood. They have been involved in financing radical groups such as the Palestinian Hamas, Algeria's Islamic Salvation Front and Armed Islamic Group, Tunisia's An-Nahda, and Usama bin Laden and his Al Qaida organization. Bank Al Taqwa was established in the Bahamas and is a close affiliate of the Al Taqwa Management Organization, which changed its name in the spring of 2000 to the Nada Management Organization. In 1997, it was reported that the $60 million collected annually for Hamas was moved to Bank Al Taqwa accounts. As of October 2000, Bank Al Taqwa appeared to be providing a clandestine line of credit to a close associate of Usama bin Laden and as of late September 2001, Usama bin Laden and his Al Qaida organization received financial assistance from Youssef M. Nada."
The individuals Nada, Gimmet and Huber were designated by the United States on November 7, 2001 and by the United Nations on November 9, 2001. Nasreddin was designated by the G7 on April 19, 2002, and by the United Nations on April 24, 2002. The Al Taqwa bank was designated by the US on November 7, 2001, and by the United Nations on November 9, 2001.
Said Ramadan had died in 1995, so whether he had direct involvement in activities of the Al Taqwa Bank and its associate companies is unclear. Jean Charles Brissard noted that the names of his two sons Hani and Tariq Ramadan appeared in an Al Taqwa Bank phonebook.
Said Ramadan is suspected to be the author of a ground plan of how to take control of a nation. This plan, called "The Project", was found in the Swiss home of Youssef Moustafa Nada. When questioned by Swiss investigators, he denied knowing who had written it, and suggested it was an item that he should have "thrown away".
The document was written in December 1982, and for almost 20 years had remained in Nada's home until its discovery. The Project sets out 12 "points of departure". These are suggestions for a national and global plan of dominance, with each point of departure broken down and qualified with "elements", "procedures" and "suggested missions". It instructs members of the Brotherhood "To channel thought, education and action in order to establish an Islamic power on the earth."
For "point of departure 5", a suggested mission is "To work within various influential institutions and use them in the service of Islam." The eleventh point of departure is "To adopt the Palestinian cause as part of a worldwide Islamic plan, with the policy plan and by means of jihad, since it acts as the keystone of the renaissance of the Arab world today." A "suggested mission" for the 11th point of departure is "To nourish a sentiment of rancor with respect to the Jews and refuse all coexistence."
Dr Rachel Ehrenfeld (author of Funding Evil; How Terrorism is Financed-and How to Stop It) and Alyssa A. Lappen of the American Center for Democracy have written extensively on the threat posed by the so-called "moderate" Muslim Brotherhood. They state: "The MB, which is illegal in Egypt, Libya and Syria, operates in at least 70 countries. It is busy preparing the ground to establish Islamic global dominance, successfully using Western democracy to legally inject itself into the political process, while using the free media to portray the Brothers as reformers and protesting any attempt to limit their subversive activities."
The Muslim Brotherhood already has footholds in several European countries. In Britain, the group is represented by the Muslim Association of Britain (MAB). This was founded by Kamal Tawfik el Helbawy, the Muslim Brotherhood's European spokesman, in 1997. As is typical for a MB group, it claims to be moderate. Despite this, one of its senior figures is Mohammed Sawalha, who was formerly a Hamas fundraiser, known in the West Bank by his code name Abu Abada. The Muslim Association for Britain's main spokesman, Azzam al-Tamimi, has openly stated that he would willingly become a suicide bomber against Israelis.
With no sense of irony nor shame, the MAB have complained that the treatment of Muslims in Britain is comparable to the treatment of Jews under Hitler. The Muslim Brotherhood has numerous Nazi links, and its own "spiritual leader" Yusuf al-Qaradawi approves of the killing of Israeli civilians.
The leftist mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, welcomed Qaradawi to his city in 2004, and in 2005 made the bizarre comparison of this "spiritual leader" to Pope John XXIII, who convened the Second Vatican Council. Livingstone has always been politically regarded as a caricature figure, but the sad truth is that while the Muslim Brotherhood has smuggled itself into Europe and America under various disguises, many serious politicians have been trying to make alliances with the MB.
UK Politicians Legitimize the Brotherhood
In Britain in 1997, the Muslim Brotherhood founded the Muslim Association of Britain (MAB). This group claims to be moderate, and promotes missionary (dawah) work among the young. Its founder, Kamal Tawfik Helbawy, was at that time the Brotherhood's European spokesman. Born in Egypt in 1939, he had been a member of the Brotherhood since the age of 12. He co-founded the World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY) in Saudi Arabia in 1972 with Abdullah bin Laden, Osama's nephew. WAMY is an organization which has been accused of funding terrorist organizations, including Hamas. Kamal Helbawy was WAMY's first president.
In November 1997, in the same year that he had founded MAB, Helbawy helped to found the Muslim Council for Britain (MCB), which was officially inaugurated on March 1, 1998. As Helbawy stated in a 2005 interview: "I played a role in the establishment of the MCB. Our objective was that the MCB should remain independent and its primary function should be to represent and protect the interests of Muslims."
The MCB, whose senior members have supported extremism, enjoyed an unprecedented position with Blair's government, acting as advisers on all things Islamic. In June 2005 its then-secretary general Iqbal Sacranie was given a knighthood by Blair, even though he is an anti-Semite who wishes to see Holocaust Memorial day scrapped. In 1996, Sacranie supported plans to invite Osama bin Laden to the UK to lecture to Muslims, claiming the terrorist was an "Islamic Scholar". Despite boycotting memorials for the Shoah, Sacranie nonetheless attended a memorial service for Sheikh Yassin, the founder of terror group Hamas. This service was held at London's Central Mosque in 2004.
In 2005, the MCB persuaded Blair to introduce a bill which would have outlawed any criticism of Islam, which was neutered by the Lords, parliament's Upper House. In June 2006, the unelected MCB succeeded in persuading the elected Blair government to abandon its 18-month campaign to outlaw forced marriage, which annually affects at least 250 young Muslim girls.
The government has been so manipulated by the claims of the "moderate" Muslims in Britain, that MI6 and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office have actively courted the Muslim Brotherhood. The overtures to the Brotherhood have been made through a unit called the “Engaging With the Islamic World Group" (EWIG) which was founded in 2003. EWIG is led by a 27-year old former Muslim radical called Mockbul Ali. In July 2006, this group used taxpayers' money to pay Yusuf al-Qaradawi, spiritual leader of the Brotherhood, to attend a conference in Turkey. On July 14, 2005, one week after the London bombings, Mockbul Ali argued that a visa should again be given to Qaradawi. That document and others can be found here.
After the London suicide bombings of July 7, 2005, the Blair government invited Tariq Ramadan, son of Said Ramadan and grandson of Hassan al-Banna, to sit on a working committee. This committee was set up to find ways of preventing radicalism amongst Britain's youth. Ramadan is not even a UK citizen, and according to Jean Charles Brissard, he has had meetings with known terrorists in his native Switzerland. The UK government sponsors a website promoting "the radical middle way" of Islam, where Ramadan has his own page. Tariq Ramadan is still barred from entering to the US, though he insists he is not a Muslim Brotherhood member.
US Politicians Duped By the Brotherhood
In the United States, one individual maintained a pretense of "moderation" which would later embarrass the left and the right. According to the testimony of Dr. Michael Waller to the US Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Abdurahman Alamoudi was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood. A man born in Eritrea in 1951, he arrived in the US in 1979 and became a naturalized US citizen on May 23, 1996. From 1985 onwards he became involved in many Muslim groups. In 1990 he founded the Washington DC-based American Muslim Council (AMC), which Waller states "has been described as a de facto front of the Muslim Brotherhood." The AMC was an affiliate of the American Muslim Foundation, which was also headed by Alamoudi. Despite this, in June 2002 the FBI called the AMC "the most mainstream Muslim group in the United States."
What is of concern is the manner in which Alamoudi persuaded US authorities under two administrations of his reliability. Around 1993, he was an adviser for the Pentagon on which Muslim chaplains should serve in the US military. He continued this role until 1998. From 1997 he acted for the State Department as a "goodwill ambassador" to Muslim countries. He was regularly at the Clinton White House and had advised Hillary Rodham Clinton on managing iftar dinners since 1996. Alamoudi had made donations to the Democrat party but was open to wooing the opposition.
In 1998, as Frank Gaffney recounted, Republican Grover Norquist formed the Islamic Institute, which aimed to recruit Muslim and Arab Americans to support the GOP. Alamoudi made contributions both to the Islamic Institute and later, in 2000 and 2001, he made payments to a lobbying firm connected with Norquist.
Alamoudi's Brotherhood connections were not touted openly, but in August 1997, he was publicly proclaiming on Fox TV that Hamas was a "freedom fighting organization". Hamas had started its first bombings of Israeli civilians in February 1996, a year earlier. On October 28, 2000, Alamoudi attended an anti-Israel protest at Lafayette Park outside the White House, where he was caught on video proclaiming "I have been labeled… as being a supporter of Hamas. Anybody supporters of Hamas here? Hear that, Bill Clinton. We are all supporters of Hamas. I wish they added that I am also a supporter of Hezbollah. Anybody who supports Hezbollah here?"
Shortly after the White House outburst, Hillary Clinton returned a donation of $1,000 to her election war chest, which Alamoudi had presented on May 25 of that year. Alamoudi embarked upon at least 10 clandestine trips to Libya. On September 28, 2003, after returning from a multi-stage excursion he was arrested at Dulles International Airport. He was handed a 19-count indictment on October 23, on charges including money laundering and dealing with a prohibited nation.
Alamoudi had been stopped at Heathrow on August 16, 2003 before boarding a flight to Syria, and had $340,000 of Libyan money seized. On July 30, 2004, he pleaded guilty to three charges - violating conditions barring transport to, and commerce with, prohibited nations (Libya), failure to disclose to IRS his income, and lying to ICE federal investigators. On October 15, 2004, Alamoudi was given a jail sentence of 23 years. He had told officials that he provided Libyan money to London-based Saudi dissidents to finance a plot to assassinate Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah.
Politicians may have been fooled by Alamoudi, who headed sixteen US-based Islamist organizations, but despite what is known of the Muslim Brotherhood's support of terrorism and extremism, US politicians are now openly courting the Brotherhood. On April 5 this year in Egypt. House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer met with Mohammed Saad el-Katani, the leader of the Brotherhood's 55 members within the Egyptian parliament. Hamdi Hassan, the Brotherhood's spokesman, said Hoyer met with el-Katani once at the parliament building and later at the home of the US ambassador to Egypt.
On May 27, a delegation by four members of the House of Congress again met with Mohammed Saad el-Katani in Egypt. The delegation was led by David Price, a Democrat who represents North Carolina.
The Enemy Within
While Said Ramadan was establishing European bases for the Muslim Brotherhood in Geneva and Munich, similar actions were being taken in the United States. In 1962, an organization called the "Cultural Society" was set up, the first Muslim Brotherhood body to be formed on American soil. Muslim Brotherhood members are sworn to secrecy when they join up ("kitman" or concealment) so exact details of this group are murky. The Cultural Society mainly drew its recruits from foreign Muslim students at mid-western universities, such as Illinois, Indiana and Michigan. The name "Cultural Society" was employed to draw attention away from its Brotherhood identity. The following year, the Muslim Students Association (MSA) was formed by the US Brotherhood, and up until the 1970s, new bodies proliferated.
The website of a newer Brotherhood-founded group, the Muslim American Society (MAS) describes its founders as "pioneers" - "The call and the spirit of the movement reached the shores of North America with arrival of Muslim students and immigrants in the late 1950s and early 1960s. These early pioneers and Islamic movement followers established in 1963 the Muslim Student Association (MSA) of the U.S and Canada as a rallying point in their endeavor to serve Islam and Muslims in North America. Other services and outreach organizations soon followed, such as the North American Islamic Trust (NAIT), the Islamic Medical Association (IMA), the Muslim Arab Youth Association (MAYA) and the Muslim Youth of North America (MYNA), to name a few."
All of the groups listed above were formed by the Muslim Brotherhood. MYNA was founded by Ahmed Elkadi, who was the US Brotherhood's treasurer from the 1970s until 1984, when he became its president. He held this position until 1995, but has since left the Brotherhood. He did not resign from his position as president of the US Ikhwan (MB) - he was pushed.
Other groups were founded by the US Brotherhood later - the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA) was formed in the 1980s as an outgrowth of the Muslim Students Association (MSA).
The Muslim American Society, under Brotherhood leadership, was incorporated in 1993 in Illinois. The decision to incorporate the MAS was made at a meeting of 40 Ikhwan (MB) members at a hotel near the Alabama-Tennessee state line. Shaker Elsayed, a leader within MAS, has admitted the Brotherhood had founded the Muslim American Society, saying: "Ikhwan members founded MAS, but MAS went way beyond that point of conception."
MAS is based in Falls Church, Virginia, the same town where Abdurahman Alamoudi lived. Five miles away in Alexandria lay the US headquarters of the World Assembly of Muslim Youth or WAMY, which was co-founded by a Brotherhood member, Kamal Helbawy. On Friday May 28, 2004 the WAMY offices were raided by agents of the FBI, ICE and the Joint Terrorism Task Force. An affidavit from a customs agent claimed that one WAMY publication included a section entitled "Animosity Toward the Jews", and stated: "The Jews are humanity's enemies: they foment immorality in this world." The affidavit mentioned links with WAMY and the terrorist group Hamas.
The director of MAS' "Freedom Foundation", Mahdi Bray, pushed for the release of a Falls Church citizen, Ahmed Omar Abu Ali, who had been accused of plotting to assassinate George W. Bush in an al-Qaeda plot. Ali, who had been educated at the Saudi-funded Islamic Saudi Academy in Alexandria, was convicted on November 22, 2005 and sentenced to 30 years' jail on March 29, 2005.
MAS, which has 10,000 members in 53 chapters across the US, is also involved in the disputes at Minneapolis-St Paul airport, where Somali taxi drivers have refused to carry passengers carrying alcohol. Three quarters of the 900 drivers are Muslim, mostly from Somalia. Last year, 5,400 potential rides were turned down because passengers had alcohol. The Metropolitan Airport Commission sought guidance from Muslims, and a fatwa was made by the MAS. Khalid Elmasary declared: "It is expressly stated. Transportation of alcohol for Muslims is against the Islamic faith, and therefore forbidden." The issue still has not been resolved.
It is sometimes hard to work out if such Muslim "representatives" are really following the ways of the prophet, or are following the plans laid out in Muslim Brotherhood's "Project" manifesto for gaining national and global power.
Mahdi Bray, who is based in Washington, D.C., where he has a radio talk-show, is accused of taking part in protests where there were calls for the death of Jews. Steve Emerson in his book American Jihad stated that at the October 28, 2000, rally for Hezbollah and Hamas at Lafayette Park, "Mahdi Bray, stood directly behind Alamoudi and was seen jubilantly exclaiming his support for these two deadly terrorist organizations." Three weeks earlier, Bray had "coordinated and led a rally where approximately 2,000 people congregated in front of the Israeli Embassy in Washington, D.C.... at one point during the rally, Mahdi Bray played the tambourine as one of the speakers sang, while the crowd repeated: 'Al-Aqsa is calling us, let's all go into jihad, and throw stones at the face of the Jews."
Bray, who was awarded a Congressional Black Caucus award in September last year, has issued a press release claiming "victory" in the settlement of a vindictive lawsuit launched by the Islamic Society of Boston (ISB), which attacked 16 organizations and individuals, including Steve Emerson.
There was no settlement agreed between the parties - the Islamic Society of Boston mysteriously dropped its lawsuit, which claimed "defamation", on May 29, 2007. With MAS coming to its defense, and with Muslim Brotherhood member Abdurahman Alamoudi listed as one its founders and trustees, with the Muslim Brotherhood's spiritual leader Yusuf al-Qaradawi as another early trustee, it is not unreasonable to assume that the Islamic Society of Boston began its life in 1982 as another outreach of the Muslim Brotherhood. In 2002, Qaradawi appeared by videolink at an ISB fund-raising event.
The ISB, which is building the largest mosque in Eastern United States at Roxborough, Boston, was in January 2006 defended by Arsalan Iftikhar, the legal director of the Council of American Relations (CAIR), who said: "Unfortunately, I see the Boston case as indicative of a growing trend in anti-Muslim rhetoric that has grown after 9/11." It should be noted that the two co-founders of CAIR, Omar Ahmad and Nihad Awad, were officials of the Islamic Association for Palestine, which was established by Hamas member Mousa Abu Marzook, and has been called a "Hamas Front". Nihad Awad and Ahmed Bedier, head of CAIR's Florida chapter, have both openly pledged their support for Hamas, which itself is derived from the Muslim Brotherhood.
With its previous links to Muslim Brotherhood members, ISB may be thankful that it was not listed as an "unindicted co-conspirator" in a plot to fund Hamas. This has been the recent fate of CAIR. In a trial in Dallas, Texas, Ghassan Elashi, the head of CAIR's Texas chapter, is accused along with a staggering list of co-conspirators. Elashi was also head of Texas branch of the outlawed Holy Land Foundation. The indictment maintains that other officials from the Texas branch of the Holy Land Foundation had conspired with numerous others to supply funds to Hamas. Ghassan Elashi and his brothers Bayan and Basman were convicted of "conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists" on April 13, 2005. Elashi was given a seven year sentence on October 13, 2006.
The named co-conspirators include eight Muslim Brotherhood individuals and organizations: Abdurahman Alamoudi, Gaddor Ibrahim Saidi, the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), Muslim Arab Youth Association (MAYA), Nizar Minshar, North American Islamic Trust (NAIT), Raed Awad and Tareq Suwaidan. The trial will begin on July 16. The trial will hopefully clarify further the exact roles of CAIR, and also the mysterious American contingent of the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Muslim Brotherhood is not a body to be trusted. It claims peace and moderation, while simultaneously planning to conquer the globe by fair means or foul. It propagates anti-Semitism, and justifies and supports the murder of Israeli civilians. Its current motto is: "Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. Koran is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope." Those politicians who try to make deals with such a group are betraying not only the people who elected them and the nations they serve, but they jeopardize the security of the Western world at large.
FamilySecurityMatters.org Contributing Editor Adrian Morgan is a British based writer and artist who has written for Western Resistance since its inception. He also writes for Spero News. He has previously contributed to various publications, including the Guardian and New Scientist and is a former Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society.